The Unified

Force-Energy-Mass

Theory of CPH

An Alternative Concept

By;

Hossein Javadi


Schema;

In Quantum mechanics and Relativity have been accepted that field and mass-energy are two separable items. But Force, Energy and Mass are equivalent in Theory of CPH. Also in classical physics attractive and repulsive gravitational force are independence and there is not any relationship between repulsive gravitational force and the limitation of speed in universe. In General Relativity gravity replacement by space-time and gravity is not a fundamental force. But in Theory of CPH gravity force is a fundamental force and it produces other fundamental forces. Also repulsive gravitational force and limit of speed are depending to each other in Theory of CPH. Also universe expanding and accelerating universe are result able of limitation of speed in Theory of CPH. So, Dark Energy is result able of the above equivalence deduction.

Contain;

Theoretical Physics and Historical Questionable Deductions Page4
A. Mechanical classic; Page4
B. Special Relativity; Page4
C. General Relativity: Page5
Trying or Stopping? Page6
Relationship between force and relativity mass-energy Page6
The Limit of speed in Universe Page7
Gravity and energy Page8
The Principle of CPH: Page8
Matrix of fundamental force Page9
Production of photon Page10
Falling Page11
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Page11
Collision; Page12
Energy Converts Page13
Black hole: Page14
A Black Hole Born by Red-Shift Page14
Repulsive gravitational force Page15
Is universe expanding? Page16
Expanding Universe & Gravity Storm Page16
The Conservation Law of Mass-Energy Page17
Accelerating Universe Page18
The Conservation Law of the Amount of Speed Page18
Fundamental forces Page19
Gravity force Page19
Nuclear Strong Force Particle Page19
Electricity force Page20
Summary Page21


Theoretical Physics and Historical Questionable Deductions

A. Mechanical classic;

Physical knowledge was born by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton discovered the universal gravitational law and formulated the mechanical laws. But there were a few questionable deductions in classical mechanic. Newton’s second law shows an object could take any velocity to infinity. Infinity of velocity was unexpressive. Time is absolute and mass is stable in classical mechanic. Another questionable concept in the classical mechanic was that the force's action was instantaneous. In the other word the speed of force was infinity.
Another questionable deduction propounded on Newton’s universal gravitational law. Gravitational forces were always attractive. If gravity always attract, then it is logical to ask why the universe doesn’t collapse. Newton had answered this question by saying that if the universe was infinite in all directions, then it would have no geometric center toward which it would collapse; the forces on any particular star or planet exerted by distant parts of the universe would tend to cancel out by symmetric.
More careful calculations, however, show that Newton’s universe would have a tendency to collapse on smaller scales: any part of the universe that happened to be slightly more dense than average would contract further, and this contraction would result in stronger gravitational forces, which would cause even more rapid contraction, and so on.
Although Newton formulated his laws in absolute frame that called ether. And physicists accepted the Galileo’s relativity. By Galileo’s relativity sum of velocities was the vectorial sum of them.
In 1867 Maxwell formulated the electromagnetism waves. He found the speed of electromagnetism waves is constant and equal c. Maxwell had believed there is an absolute frame in universe and his equations are correct in it. Also physicists believed that the energy is continuity. And physicists believed to two different conservation laws, the conservation law of energy and conservation law of mass.
In 1880 Michelson did try to calculate the speed of earth in absolute frame. He had believed that the speed of light is constant and Galileo’s relativity is correct. By Galileo’s relativity when a body is traveling with velocity v toward the observer, its light reaches to observer with velocity equal c+v. Michelson did experiment many times. But he found that the speed of earth is zero in absolute frame.
Physicists propounded many theories to explaining the experiment’s result. The best proposal was the Lorentz transformations. Also Lorentz had believed that there is an absolute frame in universe. In 1900 Planck found that the energy is quantized. So, classical mechanics did reach to critical conditions.

B. Special Relativity;
In 1905 Einstein proposed SR by two principles:
1 – The physical laws of nature are the same in every inertial frame of reference.
2 - The speed of light in vacuum is the same in all reference frames.
These principles suspected that there is not any absolute frame in universe, and the speed of light is constant for every inertial observer. Time is not absolute and changes from a frame to another frame. Einstein found the conservation law of mass-energy. He found that there is a limitation speed in the universe and it is c. He found that when an object takes energy, its mass does increase. Einstein said there is a relationship between the kinetic energy (increasing velocity) and mass. The questionable deduction in relativity is that when the velocity of an object increases, its mass increases to infinity. And the effect of external force goes to nothing.
So, there was a question about the light that travels with limitation of velocity. Einstein by consider the photoelectric effect had did show that light has energy, so light has mass. Einstein by according the Planck’s quantum theory supposed that light forms by particles of energy that in 1926 called photons. By this idea he did explain the photoelectric effect very good. So, Einstein found that the gravity force and electromagnetic force travels with light’s speed.
If photon has mass and travels with the limitation of speed, what is the rest mass of photon? By according the relativity mass, if the mass of photon had was nonzero, photon must has infinity mass when travels with light’s speed. So he supposed that the rest mass of photon is zero. But it is not really idea. This idea was imaginable to explaining relativity mass. Because there is not any frame that photon reaches to rest condition.
How we can explain the photon’s rest condition? How is producing the photon?
We know photon’s behavior is like other masses in a gravity field. Photon’s velocity and its mass increases in a gravity field, like other objects. All of them are questionable deductions.

C. General Relativity:
General relativity describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of curvature of this combined space-time. In our experience this curvature can be ignored.
The Principle of Equivalence: The Laws of Physics have the same form in every uniformly accelerated laboratory as they do in an un-accelerated laboratory in a uniform gravitational field. General relativity has been observationally confirmed: Measurements of the precession of Mercury's perihelion and observed deflection of starlight from stars near the edge of the Sun during a solar eclipse and others.
When Einstein overhauled gravity, the same problem reared its head. Like Newton, Einstein was predisposed to believe in a universe that was static, so he added a special repulsive term to his equations, intended to prevent a collapse. This term was not associated with any attraction of mass for mass, but represented merely an overall tendency for space itself to expand unless restrained by the matter that inhabited it.
It turns out that Einstein’s solution, like Newton’s, is unstable. Furthermore, it was soon discovered observationally that the universe was expanding, and this was interpreted by creating the Big Bang model, in which the universe’s current expansion is the aftermath of a fantastically hot explosion. An expanding universe, unlike a static one, was capable of being explained with Einstein’s equations, without any repulsion term. The universe’s expansion would simply slowly down over time due to the attractive gravitational forces. After these developments, Einstein said woefully that adding the repulsive term, known as the cosmological constant, had been the greatest blunder of his life.
This was the state of things until evidence began to turn up that the universe’s expansion has been speeding up rather than slowing down! Light from a distant galaxy may have taken billions of years to reach us, so we are seeing it as it was far in the past. Looking back in time, astronomers saw the universe expanding at speeds that ware lower, rather than higher. At first they were mortified, since this was exactly the opposite of what had been expected. The statistical quality of the data was also not good enough to construe ironclad proof, and there were worries about systematic errors. The case for an accelerating expansion has however been nailed down by high-precision mapping of the dim, sky-wide afterglow of the Big Bang, known as the cosmic microwave background. Some theorists have proposed reviving Einstein’s cosmological constant to account for the acceleration, while others believe it is evidence for a mysterious form of matter, which exhibits gravitational repulsion. The generic term for this unknown stuff is “dark energy.”

Trying or Stopping?
The Einstein’s theorem about being stable the speed of light is a principle and the 1st law of Newton's laws is a principle. The principles are witnessing perception, like Euclid’s geometry's principles. Also we know a principle, be true since there were not any other against effect to opposite it.
Let looking this point that, this principle is true as the experienced trust. It means, we do not envisage to the any against idea or theorem or event, since offering this idea.
With modern physics, light’s speed in vacuum is the same and we have not any answer about this to say why?
I think the solution of the above questionable deductions is finding the answer of this question why the speed of light is constant? Thus, the structure of my question is not, is the speed of light stable true or no? I will ask let we do not stop on this principle. Let us trying to know why this principle is true? You know it is believable that many of discovers was happened when scientists did not stop on a principle. For example the fifth’s Euclid principle is one of them. Geometry did development when mathematicians did ask; why this principle is true? I have been believed that we must consider the Newton's second law and Quantum mechanics and Relativity at the same time.
I suggest we start by studying the relationship between force and mass-energy.

Relationship between force and relativity mass-energy
When force F works on a particle/object, the energy of particle/object does change. By according relativity we have;

image001.gif (3298 字节)

The above relations are questionable deduction. Increasing mass is really or no? We know velocity is a relative quantity and it depends to frame and observer. Suppose in frame k a force applied on object A with mass m0 and object takes velocity v and other objects are at rest condition in frame k. So, it is acceptable that relativity mass-energy of object A does increase. Any observer does accept it by compare the mass of object A with other objects.
Now please take a new look at the effect of gravitational field on objects. When an object is moving upward the earth, it loses its kinetic energy. In formal physics have been accepted that the object's kinetic energy changes to potential energy. And when it is falling, its potential energy changes to kinetic energy.
We can do stop on this acceptation. I will propound a new looking on this phenomenon. In during that object is moving upward and toward the earth, what happens for gravity force?

By according relation W=E2-E1and fd=DE when object is moving upward the earth, E1>E2 and object loses its kinetic energy and potential energy does increase. By according relation F=-dU/dx a new question does propound. We know force is energy per unit distance. I suggest let do not stop on this deduction that kinetic energy and potential energy changes to each other. Because when force works on objects/particles, it produces energy. Does energy produce force? In the other word is energy and force convertible? If the answer was no, there is an imperishable source in nature. It is not a logically acceptation. There are many questions about relationship between force and energy without any explains in theoretical physics. We know when a photon leaves a body; photon does shift to red and loses its energy. What happens for photon's energy that it does lose? In during photon is leaving body, there is interaction between gravity field and photon only. Force does produce energy, energy produces force too. In the other word force and energy is convertible.

Also, we know energy is quantized. So, force is quantized too. By according relativity mass-energy it is result able that force and energy and mass are equivalent. Seems any unified theory must contain a new relationship between force and energy and mass. How we can definite a new relationship between force and energy and mass? By consider the relation E = mc2 mass is omissible of presently discussion.

The Limit of speed in Universe
Newton's laws show that there is not any limit for velocity in universe. In Special Relativity the speed of light c in a vacuum is the same in all reference frames. Einstein shows that the limit of speed in universe is light's speed and by considered the relation
m=m0/(1-v2/c2)1/2 never speed of objects reaches to speed of light. Also those particles are able travel with velocity c that they have zero rest mass.
But in General Relativity the speed of light does change and light's speed in gravitational field gives by following relation;

C=C0(1+U/c2), U=GM/R, M is mass of body and R is its radius.

For example in a black hole with mass equal 1.4 times of sun's mass and radius equal R=4.15 km the speed of light is equal;

c=c0(1+U/c2)=1.5 c0

It shows the speed of light depends to external force. The limitation of speed in a frame (inertial or no inertial) depends to forces in frame. So any inertial frame has an especially limitation of speed for light. So, the limit of speed in universe is not c.
The limit of speed in universe is Vc, and Vc >c in any frame and human never can measure it. I will explain later.

Gravity and energy
The relativistic energy expression attributes a mass to any energetic particle, and for the photon.

E=mc2=hn and method gravitational potential energy is then

U= -GMm/r= - GMhn0 /rc2

When the photon escapes the gravity field, it will have a different frequency

n=n0 (1-GM/rc2)

Then photon does shift to red and its energy decreases. When escape velocity in a gravitational field was equal c a photon will be red-shifted to zero frequency. It means the energy of photon converts to gravity force.
Also when the photon is falling in the gravity field, it will have a different frequency

n=n0 (1+GM/rc2)

Then photon does shift to blue and its energy increases. It means the gravity force does convert to energy. Let us taking a new looks at this phenomenon. Is correct the above relation for the initial frequency equal zero? Does produce a photon by gravity force? Why is the speed of gravity same as light's speed? By according the speed of gravity is same as the light's speed in relativity, is it an accident that light and the gravity travel at the same speed? Why has photon zero rest mass?
The answer of all the above questions is this fact that gravity does produce energy and photon does carry energy. In fact gravity converts to energy and it produces photon. Photon does appear at light speed and it decay at light speed. So, photon never is at rest conditions.

The Principle of CPH:
By according gravity produces energy and energy is quantized, so gravity force is quantized. In this article a quantum of gravity force calls Creation Particle Higgs or CPH. CPH moves with constant straight speed Vc, in empty space and without any external forces in all inertial frames. So that:

image002.gif (3947 字节)

The external forces can not increasing or decreasing the amount of speed of CPH. The external force is the factor that changing the route of movement of CPH from straight motion to other motion and vice versa. Any contact between CPH, they repel each other and absorb each other again. These interactions continue till distance between them reaches to near zero.

Matrix of fundamental force
Suppose two CPH are moving with speed Vc , Distance between them is R.
We can choice two matrixes 2x2.

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R is distance between tow CPH and – R shows distance and its direction.

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Matrix R cross Matrix CPH give Matrix A;

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Torque1 is equal RxCPH. By according that;

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CPH starts its rotation and find spin then graviton does find. We never can CPH at linear speed Vc. in fact there is not any straight motion in nature.
CPH take spin and one of them takes right spin and other one takes left spin. Distance between them decreases and their spin do increase. Any contact between CPH, they repel each other and absorb each other again. This interaction continues and electromagnetic wave appears. These interactions continue till distance between them reaches to near zero. When R goes to near zero, the unit of energy does find. We call it CPH2, it means there are two CPH. CPH2 has not spin.
Suppose there is a CPH that acts on CPH2, then CPH and CPH2 take spin. So, any electromagnetic wave has spin, because they are not alone.
Distance between CPH2 and CPH goes to near zero and CPH3 does find. In the other word a photon with frequency 3 does find. Also it has spin.

Choice two Matrixes nxn
Matrix of distance cross Matrix of CPH

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Then interaction between them produces a lot of photons or other particle.
These productions depend to density of gravitons in space and interaction between other bodies.

Production of photon
By according the size of a gamma photon and its energy, we can calculate the density of CPH in structure of photon. A gamma photon produces a pair electron-positron. The diameter of electron is less than 10-18 meter.
So, suppose volume of a photon is 2 time of electron’s volume.
The density of CPH in structure of photon is equal;
Volume of gamma photon is about;

V=4.2x10-74 m3 and its energy is equal 10.2 MeV. So density of energy r in structure of photon gives with;

rE =E/V=2.4x1080 eV/m3

Space is full of gravitons. Gravitons have interaction between each other. They absorb and work on each other and convert to electromagnetic wave. When they convert to photon, then density of work (work and energy are same) reaches to;

rE =E/V=2.4x1080 eV/m3. So, for space we have;

image009.gif (6150 字节)

Integral on work of CPH of zero to rE, E is electromagnetic energy.
In the other word integration of gravitons on each other is a projection to production electromagnetic energy. Also the production of photon happens at light speed. So observer never is able see photon at rest condition. In the rest condition photon decay and produces other particles, (remember pair production).

Falling
Earth has gravity field. Gravity field forms of many CPH that are moving toward the earth and they are interacting with which other. Suppose earth is alone and there is not any interaction between earth and other bodies in universe. When CPHs reach to earth, they absorb by earth and CPHs obey of forces that exit there. But earth is not alone and it does interaction with other bodies. Take a look at earth and moon. There are two fields; one is around the earth and other is around the moon. When a CPH reaches to earth, then other one moves toward the moon. Also when a CPH reaches to moon other one does move toward the earth and pushing moon toward the earth. So that Fe=Fm.
Suppose a stone is on the surface of earth. The system (earth and stone) is at equilibrium to replying CPH. I take it and shooting upward the earth. I give a lot CPH to stone upward the earth and it takes velocity v and kinetic energy 1/2mv2. But stone is moving in earth’s gravitational field. There are many CPH that are moving toward earth. A CPH of gravity field collides with a CPH in stone and putting it out of stone, itself goes far of stone, or goes toward the other particles in stone.
Suppose a CPH that calls A in gravity field is moving toward the earth and reaches to a CPH on an electron in stone that calls B. A and B contact with each other, and A comes back to earth gravity and B moves with speed c toward the nuclear of atom, and contact with a CPH in nuclear. B stays in nuclear and another CPH leaves nuclear and so on till a CPH leaves stone. And it pushes stone toward the earth. A flow of CPH comes to pass between all particles and atoms in stone. Also a flow of CPH comes to pass between stone and earth. Intensity of current between stone and earth depends to earth mass (as M) and stone’s mass (m+1/2mv2) and theirs distance. Intensity of current decreasing until that v reaches to zero. Then stone accelerates toward the earth.
Suppose a photon is falling toward the surface of a star. By consider GR when a photon is falling in a gravity field, the speed and frequency of photon increases. So in gravity field the limitation of speed depends to Intensity of g. And the speed of graviton is equal the limitation of speed in gravity field. When the speed of light reaches to limitation of speed in gravity field, the speed and frequency of photon does not changes. So, the limitation of speed in earth’s gravity field is not the speed of light. And it is the speed of graviton.

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
By consider the relations;

image010.gif (3370 字节)

There is no idea about zero rest mass and potential energy in relativity.
In the other word when an object takes kinetic energy its mass increases. But when an object takes potential energy, its mass is stable. Also there is not any explain about why the rest mass of photon is zero.
Example; I take a shot and shooting it upward the earth, its mass increases. At high h its velocity reaches zero, shot has potential energy equal mgh. In during that shot is moving upward the earth, its relativity mass decreases. If I take shot on my hand and bring it with constant velocity to high h, mass of shot does not change.
It is a questionable deduction.Classical mechanic did not explain gravity force. And relativity did not define energy. Also in relativity gravity is not a fundamental force. The above example shows there is a relationship between gravity force and energy. When I shoot shot my hands force that applied on shot is greater than gravity force. Difference between my hands force and gravity force gives kinetic energy to shot. In the other word, force changes to kinetic energy. But when I bring shot with constant velocity upward, two forces are equal. When shot is falling toward earth, the gravity force converts to kinetic energy and shots relativity mass increases. Let take a new look at when shot is moving up and falling down.
In during shot is moving upward the earth, gravity force pushing it to downward. By consider the Theory of CPH, shot
s kinetic energy changes to CPH and CPH abandons it. When shot is falling down CPH (gravity force) arrives to shot, CPH changes to kinetic energy and shots relativity mass increases.
What happen in this interaction between CPH and shot? What happens between earth and gravity force? Shot and earth are same. Shot has mass and it is impressionable of gravity force. Also, earth has mass and it is impressionable of gravity force. So, in during shot is moving upward, earth
s relativity mass changes to CPH and abandons it.


Collision;
Suppose shot A with mass m and velocity v is moving toward the shot B with mass m that is rest (masses are equal). They do collide with each other. Suppose after collision A is stable and B moves with velocity v.

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The energy of A does convert to force and applied on B in during the collision. FA acts on B. Many of CPH leave A and arrive at B. Their masses are equal 1/2mv2. In during the collision interaction between A and B is force acting. The reaction of leaving CPH is force that applied on A.
It implies the equivalency of force, energy and mass. In this regard force, energy and mass are interpreted as different manifestation of the physical entity.
By considering this principle all physical phenomenons are justifiable. Also by considering the fact that the CPH always moves with a constant amount of speed, no time has been passed from its lifetime, in other words no time has been passed from the world’s life and any effort for determining the world's life will come to a failure. So, the source of time depends on external forces.
For accepting this comment it is enough to change our assumption from mass and energy and force, do not believe any specified border between them. In other words the constant of light’s speed is not only emerging from a natural accident but the amount of this speed is always constant, even when energy is in form of force or mass.

Energy Converts
When a photon is falling in a gravity field, its frequency does shift to blue. By consider the following relations energy and speed of photon increases.

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Question is that this increasing goes to what amount?
The velocity has a limit in universe. So, the increasing speed of photon has a limit too. When photon is falling gravity force works on it till photon's speed reaches to gravity force. Then energy decay ant it converts to force and becomes same as other CPH in that gravity field. Suppose the limit of speed in a gravity field is L. When c reaches to L, E decay and converts to f. then dE/dx=f. and we have;

image013.gif (4217 字节)

Also when photon is leaving a body, gravity force works on it. By consider part falling (see above part) there is an interaction between photon and body and a flow of CPH comes to pass to photon and body. But the number of CPH arrives to photon is less than number of CPH that leaves it. So, the energy and frequency of photon decreases and it does shift to red. This interaction does continue till photon leaves gravity field or all of its energy converts to force.
Other case is that the speed of photon reaches to zero in an inertial frame. Then photon does decay. If photon has energy enough, energy converts to other particles. Pair production happens when the speed of photon reaches to zero. When energy is not enough, it decay and converts to other photons with lower energy or converts to CPH.

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In a strongly gravity field the energy of photon does increase speedy. Photon in interaction with other particles (like heavy nuclear) converts to matter and anti-matter.

Black hole:
At first time John Michell published an article about the black hole in 1783. In 1799 Pierre Simon Laplace proofed that a great body maybe a black hole. A black hole is a body that light cannot escape from its gravity field. How does happen this case?
Pierre Simon Laplace did give the relation VR=(2GM/R)1/2for escape velocity. When VR is equal or greater than c, there is a black hole.
As the nuclear fuel is exhausted, the outward forces of radiation diminish, allowing the gravitation to compress the star inward. The contraction of the core causes its temperature to rise and allows remaining nuclear material to be used as fuel. The star is saved from further collapse, but only for a while.
Eventually, all possible nuclear fuel is used up and the core collapses. The star’s final mass and the remaining outward pressure that the burnt-up nuclear residue can muster determine how far it collapses, into what kind of object, and at what rate. If the star is sufficiently massive or compressible, it may collapse to a black hole.
Suppose the limit of speed in a gravity field is L, and escape velocity is V. Only an object can escape from of this gravity field that its speed is between V and L. Also nothing can take velocity greater than L. In following items c is the velocity of light. And suppose L>c, we know that the velocity of light increases in gravity field, so L>c is acceptable.
1- V<c, light is able escape of the gravity field.
2- V>c, light is unable to escape of the gravity field.
3- V=L, any object and electromagnetic waves cannot escape of black hole.
4- V>L, it is absolute black hole and nothing escapes of it. Also gravity too.
When photon is leaving a black hole , all of photon's energy converts to force.
All of our ideas about the universe formed by our experiences on the earth or visible bodies and sky. There are mass, energy and force. We never can find an object without one or two of them. But it is not meaning that there is not any pure force or pure energy in universe. A black hole can be formed only by pure force. Every thing that falls in this black hole changes to force. So a black hole can forms by three kind of material or only by force.

Suppose there is a black hole that there is V>L. it is absolute black hole that nothing escapes of it. No object, no light and no other electromagnetic waves are able escape of it. Never receive any signal of it to us. We see an absolute dark part in sky. There the straight velocity of CPH is so near zero. Big Bang happened of a black hole stronger than it.
L and V are very important constants for any bodies, especially for explaining the kinds of black holes. When V>L, graviton is unable goes far of it. And outside of it any observers are unable to feel it.

A Black Hole Born by Red-Shift
Let take a new look at the star’s compress.
When a photon is leaving star, frequency shifts to red. Suppose a photon does form on the surface of star. Photon shifts to red. In during photon is leaving the star it loses its energy. So, the energy of photon decreases.
The relation dE/dx=f shows when energy of photon decreases, strongly of gravity field cannot be stable.
In during that nuclear fuel of star is used the strongly of gravity force is increasing. It means the outward forces of radiation diminish and inward pressure of gravitational forces multiples. Then star collapses and a black hole is born.

Repulsive gravitational force
In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are two separable items. But I have been believed that this opinion is incorrect. Repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are depends to each other. I will try explaining that two above items is inseparable.
Suppose all transfers motion of CPH changes to rotation motion and CPH has spin only. What event would happen when CPH has spin only and it has not any transfer motion in an inertial frame?
When density of matter is increasing in a black hole, the limit of speed does growth. In during black hole is absorbing particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity force does strongly so much. In its gravity field the limit of speed does growth, but on the surface of black hole moving is very hardly. But CPH obey of external force until all of its transfer motion changes to spin in or linear motion any inertial frame.
So, when CPH has spin only body takes critical conditions, CPH does not obey of external force and matter does explode. At first a part of black hole explodes and this explosion transfer to all sides of black hole with limitation of speed. So, in a percent of second black hole explode. And a part of universe does expanding.
Also compare it with when distance between CPH reaches to zero and they do flee of each other. So, repulsive force is other face of attractive force.

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Our universe was born by a black hole’s explosion. All bodies in our universe are interaction with bodies in other universes.
The center of explosion is like the center of great bodies. There external force is near zero in the center of explosion. So, there interaction between particles and atoms do without the effect of a considerable external force. Also the center of explosion is an especially point in observable universe. All bodies are interaction to center of explosion and receive any particles to them from it and go from bodies to center of explosion. In center of explosion interaction between particles produce new particles.
In CPH theory the geometry of universe is not that Newton said or Einstein propounded.
Universe is infinite in all directions, but it is part by part. Every part is a sub universe that has itself geometry.

Is universe expanding?
Black hole absorbs particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity force does strongly so much. Then the straight speed or other movement of CPH changes to spin or other motions. When all motions of CPH changed to spin, body takes critical conditions.
If this black hole absorbs other objects or to reaction with other body, CPHs do not obey of external force and black hole explodes. At first time the great bodies born. Then objects with high speed near speed of light or faster than light start their travel. Then atoms and particles do form and in the end electromagnetic wave and CPH progressing all side of universe.
All objects feeling that itself is the center of this explosion. And every observer seems that all bodies are speeding away from each other. Suppose another explosion happens in other space of universe. Many bodies start their travel toward the bodies of last explosion. Then observers witness colliding bodies or galaxies. Our universe was born by a black hole’s explosion. We thought this explosion did happen in all of universe. There is probability that every black hole growth and explodes, and then a new universe does born.

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Expanding Universe & Gravity Storm
A Look at Expanding Universe;
Bodies started their motion and did go far from center of explosion, after of Big Bang had happened. Bodies were going far each other and they were impressionable other bodies. So, when a body has been going far of other bodies, its kinetic energy has been changing to CPH and has been abandon it. CPH has been moving all sides of universe,
especially toward the center of explosion. When CPHs reach to center of explosion from many bodies, they have different directions. It is like a pool that many tubes with different directions are feeding water to a pool. CPH create storm gravity. We can not see gravity force, so when we are looking at a point of space, there is no any visible things. But storm gravity produces any particle or photon or mass and feed to universe. And we saw many kinds beam of particle receive to earth. But we never can see the source of these particles.

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The Conservation Law of Mass-Energy

Classical mechanic had two conservation laws. One was the conservation law of mass, and other was the conservation law of energy. We know these laws are incorrect because mass and energy are convertible to each other.
Relativity propounded the conservation law of mass-energy. Evidence show it is correct. Mass and energy are two changeable quantities. We know the conservation law of mass-energy is correct in a closed system. Mass changes to energy and energy changes to mass.
But it is a questionable deduction. Are there mass and energy in universe, only?
Suppose universe is a closed system. This supposition is acceptable.
Did form universe of mass and energy only?
There is not other thing in universe?
All evidence shows that objects take energy in fields.
When an electron accelerates in an electrical field, it takes energy.
In this case mass does not changes to energy. Field produces energy.
When an object accelerates by force, it takes energy.
Also in this case mass does not changes to energy. Field produces energy.
So the conservation law of mass-energy is not correct in universe.
We can find space between stars that there is force only and there is empty of mass and energy. We never can find any closed system that there were mass and energy, only.
But suppose there is a really closed system and it is isolate of others. No external force applied on this closed system. Suppose the summation of all energies is equal x, and summation of mass is equal y kg. There happens a nuclear explosion and z kg mass changes to energy. What happens for nuclear forces? They do go to nothing?
All evidence show there is a relationship between force and energy.
Force and energy is convertible.
Field is weakly energy.

Accelerating Universe
Deep as Einstein's general theory of relativity may be, it remains silent on a profound question: Is empty space really empty? Inflation models predict that it was not so in the past, and it may not be so today either. Einstein introduced a "cosmological constant" into his equations, to represent the possibility that even empty space has energy and couples to gravity. The unknown magnitude of the cosmological constant is set by parts of physics beyond Einstein's understanding---and, at present, our own.
The new discovery that the expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating suggests the presence of something dubbed "dark energy" that drives space apart. It seems likely that we have roughly measured the value of a cosmological constant or something like it.
This new discovery already widely accepted because it explains many observations. The first indication was that the rate of expansion of the Universe has been increasing, revealed by Type Ia supernovae. Supporting evidence comes from studies of global geometry, structure formation, cosmic age, and galaxy clustering. They leave little doubt that in some sense Einstein's "cosmological constant" is a reality. The energy of the Universe is dominated by empty space whose gravitational effect is to pull the Universe apart.
The conservation law the amount of speed is able explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe. The conservation law the amount of speed is result able of Theory of CPH.

The Conservation Law of the Amount of Speed
Suppose atom1 formed with n1 CPH, atom2 formed with n2 CPH and so on. Suppose all of CPH that a system did form with of them is equal n CPH.. By according;

image019.gif (3078 字节)

When a system explodes, then the angular momentum of CPH changes to linear momentum.
Any CPH has a linear motion and other movement with objects or other particles.
Any explosion does change other motion of CPH to linear motion. When a star explodes the linear motion of universe does increase. Sun does emit 4x1012 kg per second. When sun’s light or particles reach to earth, their linear momentums do transfer to earth. So earth takes acceleration. We know any star does burst and they do emit a lot of CPH to space. So the linear momentum of bodies increases and they accelerate. So universe has acceleration.

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If explosion of bodies was being equal of production of other bodies, universe has not any acceleration.

Fundamental forces
Every field does form by flowing of forces that come to pass between sources. The force and its source are same. Mass and gravity force are same, mass is convertible to gravity force, and vise versa and so on. Also, force and energy is convertible. In this letter I am trying to explain fundamental forces.

Gravity force
See part falling in this article.

Nuclear Strong Force Particle
The nuclear strong field is same as gravity field. When a proton is alone, like the hydrogen nuclear, there is not any flow between it and other protons.
Proton has positive charge. Also it has spin. Suppose two protons are moving toward each other. There are two resistances for contraction them. One is electric charge and another is spin. Any contact between these protons, they repel each other. But when they have high energy, energy produces an attractive force between them. Then distance between protons goes to near zero. Proton keeps its spin and electric charge. And nuclear has spin. In a heavy nuclear there are many flow of strong force current between each other.
Suppose there are a few protons and neutron in a nuclear that call A, B, C, D…etc. Then a current of strong force particles is between A and B, also a current is between A and C.etc. When a strong force particle leaves A and reaches to B, another leaves B toward the A and pushing it toward B and so on.
Nucleus has spin, also protons and neutrons have spin in nucleus. So, when a strong force particle leaves a proton one side of nucleus toward the other side, it passes a very twisted path. These currents cover the nucleus and a strong field does form. The radius of field depends to path of current nuclear strong force.
By consider the above seems that the nuclear strong force particle does find by energy. Also, gravity force produces energy; so nuclear strong force particle does form by gravity.

Electricity force
There are two electricity charges. Negative charge shows with N and positive charge that shows with P. Also there two electric force, one is attractive that shows with A, and repulsive force that shows with R.
Suppose an electric force particle is moving. It reaches to another electric force particle. They combine which other and produce two new electric force particles. Productions are attractive or repulsive as following;

N+P=2A
N+N=2R
P+P=2R

Explain;
Negative charge and negative charge;
Suppose N leaved an electron1 and is moving that reaches to other N that is coming of electron2. They combine and do convert to two R (repulsive force). They repulsive each other and do go far. One of them moves toward electron1 and shutting it far of electron2. Electron1 accelerates and escape of electron2. When electron1 accelerates R convert to N and leaves it. Electron2 has same interaction.

Positive charge and positive charge;
It is same as Negative charge and negative charge.

Positive charge and negative charge;
N leaved an electron and is moving that reaches to P that is coming of a proton. They combine and do convert to two A. They leave each other and do move toward the electron and proton. When one of them reaches to electron pushing it toward the proton and another N leaves electron. The proton's interaction is same as. When A reaches to proton, pushing it toward the electron. Then it converts to P and leaves proton.

Result1;
In nucleus protons emit positive force particles. But when they reach to each other, they convert to repulsive force particles. So, positive force particle is electric force particle in during that leaves proton until reaches to another electric positive force particle.
So, the affect of electric charge in nucleus is different of other cases.

Result2;
When two protons move toward each other with high energy, there is not any nuclear strong force. When they do combine with each other, energy does change to nuclear strong force. So, by consider CPH theory, all forces form of CPH.

Summary
Theory of CPH based on three following items;
1- The external force does not change the amount of speed.

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The light's speed is constant because the amount speed of elements that do form light is constant.

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2- By according force produces energy it is result able that energy converts to force.
Particles force work on each other and produce energy.

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3- Many of phenomenons are a function of limit of speed in universe.
No objects reache to speed of light.

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When the speed of energy reaches to zero, energy converts to mass.

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The contraction of mass in space has a limit. This limit is a function of strongly of gravity force. When all motions of CPH transferred to Spin, CPH does not obey of external forces. Then attractive force changes to repulsive force and body does explode.

CPH has Spin only ? matter explodes
Or attractive force changes to repulsive force

This is Theory of CPH that I propound. I like to any fresh opinion from anyone.
Very thanks for bearing me.

With Best Regards
Hossein Javadi

Emails; javadi_hossein@hotmail.com
javadi_hossein@findology.com
amir_javadi4@yahoo.com
Group;
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cph_theory/


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