The Unified

Force-Energy-Mass

Theory of CPH

An Alternative Concept

By;

Hossein Javadi

Schema;

In Quantum mechanics and Relativity have been accepted that field and mass-energy are two
separable items. But Force, Energy and Mass are equivalent in Theory of CPH. Also in
classical physics attractive and repulsive gravitational force are independence and there
is not any relationship between repulsive gravitational force and the limitation of speed
in universe. In General Relativity gravity replacement by space-time and gravity is not a
fundamental force. But in Theory of CPH gravity force is a fundamental force and it
produces other fundamental forces. Also repulsive gravitational force and limit of speed
are depending to each other in Theory of CPH. Also universe expanding and accelerating
universe are result able of limitation of speed in Theory of CPH. So, Dark Energy is
result able of the above equivalence deduction.

Contain;

Theoretical Physics and Historical Questionable Deductions Page4

A. Mechanical classic; Page4

B. Special Relativity; Page4

C. General Relativity: Page5

Trying or Stopping? Page6

Relationship between force and relativity mass-energy Page6

The Limit of speed in Universe Page7

Gravity and energy Page8

The Principle of CPH: Page8

Matrix of fundamental force Page9

Production of photon Page10

Falling Page11

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Page11

Collision; Page12

Energy Converts Page13

Black hole: Page14

A Black Hole Born by Red-Shift Page14

Repulsive gravitational force Page15

Is universe expanding? Page16

Expanding Universe & Gravity Storm Page16

The Conservation Law of Mass-Energy Page17

Accelerating Universe Page18

The Conservation Law of the Amount of Speed Page18

Fundamental forces Page19

Gravity force Page19

Nuclear Strong Force Particle Page19

Electricity force Page20

Summary Page21

Theoretical Physics and Historical Questionable Deductions

A. Mechanical classic;

Physical knowledge was born by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton discovered the universal
gravitational law and formulated the mechanical laws. But there were a few questionable
deductions in classical mechanic. Newton’s second law shows an object could take any
velocity to infinity. Infinity of velocity was unexpressive. Time is absolute and mass is
stable in classical mechanic. Another questionable concept in the classical mechanic was
that the force's action was instantaneous. In the other word the speed of force was
infinity.

Another questionable deduction propounded on Newton’s universal gravitational law.
Gravitational forces were always attractive. If gravity always attract, then it is logical
to ask why the universe doesn’t collapse. Newton had answered this question by saying
that if the universe was infinite in all directions, then it would have no geometric
center toward which it would collapse; the forces on any particular star or planet exerted
by distant parts of the universe would tend to cancel out by symmetric.

More careful calculations, however, show that Newton’s universe would have a tendency to
collapse on smaller scales: any part of the universe that happened to be slightly more
dense than average would contract further, and this contraction would result in stronger
gravitational forces, which would cause even more rapid contraction, and so on.

Although Newton formulated his laws in absolute frame that called ether. And physicists
accepted the Galileo’s relativity. By Galileo’s relativity sum of velocities was the
vectorial sum of them.

In 1867 Maxwell formulated the electromagnetism waves. He found the speed of
electromagnetism waves is constant and equal c. Maxwell had believed there is an absolute
frame in universe and his equations are correct in it. Also physicists believed that the
energy is continuity. And physicists believed to two different conservation laws, the
conservation law of energy and conservation law of mass.

In 1880 Michelson did try to calculate the speed of earth in absolute frame. He had
believed that the speed of light is constant and Galileo’s relativity is correct. By
Galileo’s relativity when a body is traveling with velocity v toward the observer, its
light reaches to observer with velocity equal c+v. Michelson did experiment many times.
But he found that the speed of earth is zero in absolute frame.

Physicists propounded many theories to explaining the experiment’s result. The best
proposal was the Lorentz transformations. Also Lorentz had believed that there is an
absolute frame in universe. In 1900 Planck found that the energy is quantized. So,
classical mechanics did reach to critical conditions.

B. Special Relativity;

In 1905 Einstein proposed SR by two principles:

1 – The physical laws of nature are the same in every inertial frame of reference.

2 - The speed of light in vacuum is the same in all reference frames.

These principles suspected that there is not any absolute frame in universe, and the speed
of light is constant for every inertial observer. Time is not absolute and changes from a
frame to another frame. Einstein found the conservation law of mass-energy. He found that
there is a limitation speed in the universe and it is c. He found that when an object
takes energy, its mass does increase. Einstein said there is a relationship between the
kinetic energy (increasing velocity) and mass. The questionable deduction in relativity is
that when the velocity of an object increases, its mass increases to infinity. And the
effect of external force goes to nothing.

So, there was a question about the light that travels with limitation of velocity.
Einstein by consider the photoelectric effect had did show that light has energy, so light
has mass. Einstein by according the Planck’s quantum theory supposed that light forms by
particles of energy that in 1926 called photons. By this idea he did explain the
photoelectric effect very good. So, Einstein found that the gravity force and
electromagnetic force travels with light’s speed.

If photon has mass and travels with the limitation of speed, what is the rest mass of
photon? By according the relativity mass, if the mass of photon had was nonzero, photon
must has infinity mass when travels with light’s speed. So he supposed that the rest
mass of photon is zero. But it is not really idea. This idea was imaginable to explaining
relativity mass. Because there is not any frame that photon reaches to rest condition.

How we can explain the photon’s rest condition? How is producing the photon?

We know photon’s behavior is like other masses in a gravity field. Photon’s velocity
and its mass increases in a gravity field, like other objects. All of them are
questionable deductions.

C. General Relativity:

General relativity describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of curvature of
this combined space-time. In our experience this curvature can be ignored.

The Principle of Equivalence: The Laws of Physics have the same form in every uniformly
accelerated laboratory as they do in an un-accelerated laboratory in a uniform
gravitational field. General relativity has been observationally confirmed: Measurements
of the precession of Mercury's perihelion and observed deflection of starlight from stars
near the edge of the Sun during a solar eclipse and others.

When Einstein overhauled gravity, the same problem reared its head. Like Newton, Einstein
was predisposed to believe in a universe that was static, so he added a special repulsive
term to his equations, intended to prevent a collapse. This term was not associated with
any attraction of mass for mass, but represented merely an overall tendency for space
itself to expand unless restrained by the matter that inhabited it.

It turns out that Einstein’s solution, like Newton’s, is unstable. Furthermore, it was
soon discovered observationally that the universe was expanding, and this was interpreted
by creating the Big Bang model, in which the universe’s current expansion is the
aftermath of a fantastically hot explosion. An expanding universe, unlike a static one,
was capable of being explained with Einstein’s equations, without any repulsion term.
The universe’s expansion would simply slowly down over time due to the attractive
gravitational forces. After these developments, Einstein said woefully that adding the
repulsive term, known as the cosmological constant, had been the greatest blunder of his
life.

This was the state of things until evidence began to turn up that the universe’s
expansion has been speeding up rather than slowing down! Light from a distant galaxy may
have taken billions of years to reach us, so we are seeing it as it was far in the past.
Looking back in time, astronomers saw the universe expanding at speeds that ware lower,
rather than higher. At first they were mortified, since this was exactly the opposite of
what had been expected. The statistical quality of the data was also not good enough to
construe ironclad proof, and there were worries about systematic errors. The case for an
accelerating expansion has however been nailed down by high-precision mapping of the dim,
sky-wide afterglow of the Big Bang, known as the cosmic microwave background. Some
theorists have proposed reviving Einstein’s cosmological constant to account for the
acceleration, while others believe it is evidence for a mysterious form of matter, which
exhibits gravitational repulsion. The generic term for this unknown stuff is “dark
energy.”

Trying or Stopping?

The Einstein’s theorem about being stable the speed of light is a principle and the 1st
law of Newton's laws is a principle. The principles are witnessing perception, like Euclid’s
geometry's principles. Also we know a principle, be true since there were not any other
against effect to opposite it.

Let looking this point that, this principle is true as the experienced trust. It means, we
do not envisage to the any against idea or theorem or event, since offering this idea.

With modern physics, light’s speed in vacuum is the same and we have not any answer
about this to say why?

I think the solution of the above questionable deductions is finding the answer of this
question why the speed of light is constant? Thus, the structure of my question is not, is
the speed of light stable true or no? I will ask let we do not stop on this principle. Let
us trying to know why this principle is true? You know it is believable that many of
discovers was happened when scientists did not stop on a principle. For example the fifth’s
Euclid principle is one of them. Geometry did development when mathematicians did ask; why
this principle is true? I have been believed that we must consider the Newton's second law
and Quantum mechanics and Relativity at the same time.

I suggest we start by studying the relationship between force and mass-energy.

Relationship between force and relativity mass-energy

When force F works on a particle/object, the energy of particle/object does change. By
according relativity we have;

The above relations are questionable deduction. Increasing mass is really or no? We
know velocity is a relative quantity and it depends to frame and observer. Suppose in
frame k a force applied on object A with mass m0 and object takes velocity v and other
objects are at rest condition in frame k. So, it is acceptable that relativity mass-energy
of object A does increase. Any observer does accept it by compare the mass of object A
with other objects.

Now please take a new look at the effect of gravitational field on objects. When an object
is moving upward the earth, it loses its kinetic energy. In formal physics have been
accepted that the object's kinetic energy changes to potential energy. And when it is
falling, its potential energy changes to kinetic energy.

We can do stop on this acceptation. I will propound a new looking on this phenomenon. In
during that object is moving upward and toward the earth, what happens for gravity force?

By according relation W=E_{2}-E_{1}and fd=DE when object is moving
upward the earth, E_{1}>E_{2} and object loses its kinetic energy and
potential energy does increase. By according relation F=-dU/dx a new question does
propound. We know force is energy per unit distance. I suggest let do not stop on this
deduction that kinetic energy and potential energy changes to each other. Because when
force works on objects/particles, it produces energy. Does energy produce force? In the
other word is energy and force convertible? If the answer was no, there is an imperishable
source in nature. It is not a logically acceptation. There are many questions about
relationship between force and energy without any explains in theoretical physics. We know
when a photon leaves a body; photon does shift to red and loses its energy. What happens
for photon's energy that it does lose? In during photon is leaving body, there is
interaction between gravity field and photon only. Force does produce energy, energy
produces force too. In the other word force and energy is convertible.

Also, we know energy is quantized. So, force is quantized too. By according relativity
mass-energy it is result able that force and energy and mass are equivalent. Seems any
unified theory must contain a new relationship between force and energy and mass. How we
can definite a new relationship between force and energy and mass? By consider the
relation E = mc^{2} mass is omissible of presently discussion.

The Limit of speed in Universe

Newton's laws show that there is not any limit for velocity in universe. In Special
Relativity the speed of light c in a vacuum is the same in all reference frames. Einstein
shows that the limit of speed in universe is light's speed and by considered the relation

m=m_{0}/(1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2} never speed of objects
reaches to speed of light. Also those particles are able travel with velocity c that they
have zero rest mass.

But in General Relativity the speed of light does change and light's speed in
gravitational field gives by following relation;

C=C_{0}(1+U/c^{2}), U=GM/R, M is mass of body and R is its radius.

For example in a black hole with mass equal 1.4 times of sun's mass and radius equal
R=4.15 km the speed of light is equal;

c=c_{0}(1+U/c^{2})=1.5 c_{0}

It shows the speed of light depends to external force. The limitation of speed in a frame
(inertial or no inertial) depends to forces in frame. So any inertial frame has an
especially limitation of speed for light. So, the limit of speed in universe is not c.

The limit of speed in universe is Vc, and Vc >c in any frame and human never can
measure it. I will explain later.

Gravity and energy

The relativistic energy expression attributes a mass to any energetic particle, and for
the photon.

E=mc^{2}=hn and method gravitational potential energy is then

U= -GMm/r= - GMhn_{0} /rc^{2}

When the photon escapes the gravity field, it will have a different frequency

n=n_{0} (1-GM/rc^{2})

Then photon does shift to red and its energy decreases. When escape velocity in a
gravitational field was equal c a photon will be red-shifted to zero frequency. It means
the energy of photon converts to gravity force.

Also when the photon is falling in the gravity field, it will have a different frequency

n=n_{0} (1+GM/rc^{2})

Then photon does shift to blue and its energy increases. It means the gravity force
does convert to energy. Let us taking a new looks at this phenomenon. Is correct the above
relation for the initial frequency equal zero? Does produce a photon by gravity force? Why
is the speed of gravity same as light's speed? By according the speed of gravity is same
as the light's speed in relativity, is it an accident that light and the gravity travel at
the same speed? Why has photon zero rest mass?

The answer of all the above questions is this fact that gravity does produce energy and
photon does carry energy. In fact gravity converts to energy and it produces photon.
Photon does appear at light speed and it decay at light speed. So, photon never is at rest
conditions.

The Principle of CPH:

By according gravity produces energy and energy is quantized, so gravity force is
quantized. In this article a quantum of gravity force calls Creation Particle Higgs or
CPH. CPH moves with constant straight speed Vc, in empty space and without any external
forces in all inertial frames. So that:

The external forces can not increasing or decreasing the amount of speed of CPH. The external force is the factor that changing the route of movement of CPH from straight motion to other motion and vice versa. Any contact between CPH, they repel each other and absorb each other again. These interactions continue till distance between them reaches to near zero.

Matrix of fundamental force

Suppose two CPH are moving with speed Vc , Distance between them is R.

We can choice two matrixes 2x2.

R is distance between tow CPH and – R shows distance and its direction.

Matrix R cross Matrix CPH give Matrix A;

Torque1 is equal RxCPH. By according that;

CPH starts its rotation and find spin then graviton does find. We never
can CPH at linear speed Vc. in fact there is not any straight motion in nature.

CPH take spin and one of them takes right spin and other one takes left spin. Distance
between them decreases and their spin do increase. Any contact between CPH, they repel
each other and absorb each other again. This interaction continues and electromagnetic
wave appears. These interactions continue till distance between them reaches to near zero.
When R goes to near zero, the unit of energy does find. We call it CPH2, it means there
are two CPH. CPH2 has not spin.

Suppose there is a CPH that acts on CPH2, then CPH and CPH2 take spin. So, any
electromagnetic wave has spin, because they are not alone.

Distance between CPH2 and CPH goes to near zero and CPH3 does find. In the other word a
photon with frequency 3 does find. Also it has spin.

Choice two Matrixes nxn

Matrix of distance cross Matrix of CPH

Then interaction between them produces a lot of photons or other particle.

These productions depend to density of gravitons in space and interaction between other
bodies.

Production of photon

By according the size of a gamma photon and its energy, we can calculate the density of
CPH in structure of photon. A gamma photon produces a pair electron-positron. The diameter
of electron is less than 10^{-18} meter.

So, suppose volume of a photon is 2 time of electron’s volume.

The density of CPH in structure of photon is equal;

Volume of gamma photon is about;

V=4.2x10^{-74} m^{3} and its energy is equal 10.2 MeV. So
density of energy r in structure of photon gives with;

r_{E} =E/V=2.4x10^{80} eV/m3

Space is full of gravitons. Gravitons have interaction between each other. They absorb and
work on each other and convert to electromagnetic wave. When they convert to photon, then
density of work (work and energy are same) reaches to;

r_{E} =E/V=2.4x10^{80} eV/m^{3}. So, for space we have;

Integral on work of CPH of zero to r_{E}, E is electromagnetic
energy.

In the other word integration of gravitons on each other is a projection to production
electromagnetic energy. Also the production of photon happens at light speed. So observer
never is able see photon at rest condition. In the rest condition photon decay and
produces other particles, (remember pair production).

Falling

Earth has gravity field. Gravity field forms of many CPH that are moving toward the earth
and they are interacting with which other. Suppose earth is alone and there is not any
interaction between earth and other bodies in universe. When CPHs reach to earth, they
absorb by earth and CPHs obey of forces that exit there. But earth is not alone and it
does interaction with other bodies. Take a look at earth and moon. There are two fields;
one is around the earth and other is around the moon. When a CPH reaches to earth, then
other one moves toward the moon. Also when a CPH reaches to moon other one does move
toward the earth and pushing moon toward the earth. So that F_{e}=F_{m}.

Suppose a stone is on the surface of earth. The system (earth and stone) is at equilibrium
to replying CPH. I take it and shooting upward the earth. I give a lot CPH to stone upward
the earth and it takes velocity v and kinetic energy 1/2mv^{2}. But stone is
moving in earth’s gravitational field. There are many CPH that are moving toward earth.
A CPH of gravity field collides with a CPH in stone and putting it out of stone, itself
goes far of stone, or goes toward the other particles in stone.

Suppose a CPH that calls A in gravity field is moving toward the earth and reaches to a
CPH on an electron in stone that calls B. A and B contact with each other, and A comes
back to earth gravity and B moves with speed c toward the nuclear of atom, and contact
with a CPH in nuclear. B stays in nuclear and another CPH leaves nuclear and so on till a
CPH leaves stone. And it pushes stone toward the earth. A flow of CPH comes to pass
between all particles and atoms in stone. Also a flow of CPH comes to pass between stone
and earth. Intensity of current between stone and earth depends to earth mass (as M) and
stone’s mass (m+1/2mv^{2}) and theirs distance. Intensity of current decreasing
until that v reaches to zero. Then stone accelerates toward the earth.

Suppose a photon is falling toward the surface of a star. By consider GR when a photon is
falling in a gravity field, the speed and frequency of photon increases. So in gravity
field the limitation of speed depends to Intensity of g. And the speed of graviton is
equal the limitation of speed in gravity field. When the speed of light reaches to
limitation of speed in gravity field, the speed and frequency of photon does not changes.
So, the limitation of speed in earth’s gravity field is not the speed of light. And it
is the speed of graviton.

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy

By consider the relations;

There is no idea about zero rest mass and potential energy in relativity.

In the other word when an object takes kinetic energy its mass increases. But when an
object takes potential energy, its mass is stable. Also there is not any explain about why
the rest mass of photon is zero.

Example; I take a shot and shooting it upward the earth, its mass increases. At high h its
velocity reaches zero, shot has potential energy equal mgh. In during that shot is moving
upward the earth, its relativity mass decreases. If I take shot on my hand and bring it
with constant velocity to high h, mass of shot does not change.

It is a questionable deduction.Classical mechanic did not explain
gravity force. And relativity did not define energy. Also in relativity gravity is not a
fundamental force. The above example shows there is a relationship between gravity force
and energy. When I shoot shot my hand’s force that
applied on shot is greater than gravity force. Difference between my hand’s force and gravity force gives kinetic energy to shot. In the other
word, force changes to kinetic energy. But when I bring shot with constant velocity
upward, two forces are equal. When shot is falling toward earth, the gravity force
converts to kinetic energy and shot’s relativity mass
increases. Let take a new look at when shot is moving up and falling down.

In during shot is moving upward the earth, gravity force pushing it to downward. By
consider the Theory of CPH, shot’s kinetic energy
changes to CPH and CPH abandons it. When shot is falling down CPH (gravity force) arrives
to shot, CPH changes to kinetic energy and shot’s
relativity mass increases.

What happen in this interaction between CPH and shot? What happens between earth and
gravity force? Shot and earth are same. Shot has mass and it is impressionable of gravity
force. Also, earth has mass and it is impressionable of gravity force. So, in during shot
is moving upward, earth’s relativity mass changes to CPH
and abandons it.

Collision;

Suppose shot A with mass m and velocity v is moving toward the shot B with mass m that is
rest (masses are equal). They do collide with each other. Suppose after collision A is
stable and B moves with velocity v.

The energy of A does convert to force and applied on B in during the
collision. FA acts on B. Many of CPH leave A and arrive at B. Their masses are equal
1/2mv2. In during the collision interaction between A and B is force acting. The reaction
of leaving CPH is force that applied on A.

It implies the equivalency of force, energy and mass. In this regard force, energy and
mass are interpreted as different manifestation of the physical entity.

By considering this principle all physical phenomenons are justifiable. Also by
considering the fact that the CPH always moves with a constant amount of speed, no time
has been passed from its lifetime, in other words no time has been passed from the world’s
life and any effort for determining the world's life will come to a failure. So, the
source of time depends on external forces.

For accepting this comment it is enough to change our assumption from mass and energy and
force, do not believe any specified border between them. In other words the constant of
light’s speed is not only emerging from a natural accident but the amount of this speed
is always constant, even when energy is in form of force or mass.

Energy Converts

When a photon is falling in a gravity field, its frequency does shift to blue. By consider
the following relations energy and speed of photon increases.

Question is that this increasing goes to what amount?

The velocity has a limit in universe. So, the increasing speed of photon has a limit too.
When photon is falling gravity force works on it till photon's speed reaches to gravity
force. Then energy decay ant it converts to force and becomes same as other CPH in that
gravity field. Suppose the limit of speed in a gravity field is L. When c reaches to L, E
decay and converts to f. then dE/dx=f. and we have;

Also when photon is leaving a body, gravity force works on it. By consider
part falling (see above part) there is an interaction between photon and body and a flow
of CPH comes to pass to photon and body. But the number of CPH arrives to photon is less
than number of CPH that leaves it. So, the energy and frequency of photon decreases and it
does shift to red. This interaction does continue till photon leaves gravity field or all
of its energy converts to force.

Other case is that the speed of photon reaches to zero in an inertial frame. Then photon
does decay. If photon has energy enough, energy converts to other particles. Pair
production happens when the speed of photon reaches to zero. When energy is not enough, it
decay and converts to other photons with lower energy or converts to CPH.

In a strongly gravity field the energy of photon does increase speedy.
Photon in interaction with other particles (like heavy nuclear) converts to matter and
anti-matter.

Black hole:

At first time John Michell published an article about the black hole in 1783. In 1799
Pierre Simon Laplace proofed that a great body maybe a black hole. A black hole is a body
that light cannot escape from its gravity field. How does happen this case?

Pierre Simon Laplace did give the relation VR=(2GM/R)^{1/2}for escape velocity.
When VR is equal or greater than c, there is a black hole.

As the nuclear fuel is exhausted, the outward forces of radiation diminish, allowing the
gravitation to compress the star inward. The contraction of the core causes its
temperature to rise and allows remaining nuclear material to be used as fuel. The star is
saved from further collapse, but only for a while.

Eventually, all possible nuclear fuel is used up and the core collapses. The star’s
final mass and the remaining outward pressure that the burnt-up nuclear residue can muster
determine how far it collapses, into what kind of object, and at what rate. If the star is
sufficiently massive or compressible, it may collapse to a black hole.

Suppose the limit of speed in a gravity field is L, and escape velocity is V. Only an
object can escape from of this gravity field that its speed is between V and L. Also
nothing can take velocity greater than L. In following items c is the velocity of light.
And suppose L>c, we know that the velocity of light increases in gravity field, so
L>c is acceptable.

1- V<c, light is able escape of the gravity field.

2- V>c, light is unable to escape of the gravity field.

3- V=L, any object and electromagnetic waves cannot escape of black hole.

4- V>L, it is absolute black hole and nothing escapes of it. Also gravity too.

When photon is leaving a black hole , all of photon's energy converts to force.

All of our ideas about the universe formed by our experiences on the earth or visible
bodies and sky. There are mass, energy and force. We never can find an object without one
or two of them. But it is not meaning that there is not any pure force or pure energy in
universe. A black hole can be formed only by pure force. Every thing that falls in this
black hole changes to force. So a black hole can forms by three kind of material or only
by force.

Suppose there is a black hole that there is V>L. it
is absolute black hole that nothing escapes of it. No object, no light and no other
electromagnetic waves are able escape of it. Never receive any signal of it to us. We see
an absolute dark part in sky. There the straight velocity of CPH is so near zero. Big Bang
happened of a black hole stronger than it.

L and V are very important constants for any bodies, especially for explaining the kinds
of black holes. When V>L, graviton is unable goes far of it. And outside of it any
observers are unable to feel it.

A Black Hole Born by Red-Shift

Let take a new look at the star’s compress.

When a photon is leaving star, frequency shifts to red. Suppose a photon does form on the
surface of star. Photon shifts to red. In during photon is leaving the star it loses its
energy. So, the energy of photon decreases.

The relation dE/dx=f shows when energy of photon decreases, strongly of gravity field
cannot be stable.

In during that nuclear fuel of star is used the strongly of gravity force is increasing.
It means the outward forces of radiation diminish and inward pressure of gravitational
forces multiples. Then star collapses and a black hole is born.

Repulsive gravitational force

In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational
force and limitation of speed are two separable items. But I have been believed that this
opinion is incorrect. Repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are depends to
each other. I will try explaining that two above items is inseparable.

Suppose all transfers motion of CPH changes to rotation motion and CPH has spin only. What
event would happen when CPH has spin only and it has not any transfer motion in an
inertial frame?

When density of matter is increasing in a black hole, the limit of speed does growth. In
during black hole is absorbing particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity
force does strongly so much. In its gravity field the limit of speed does growth, but on
the surface of black hole moving is very hardly. But CPH obey of external force until all
of its transfer motion changes to spin in or linear motion any inertial frame.

So, when CPH has spin only body takes critical conditions, CPH does not obey of external
force and matter does explode. At first a part of black hole explodes and this explosion
transfer to all sides of black hole with limitation of speed. So, in a percent of second
black hole explode. And a part of universe does expanding.

Also compare it with when distance between CPH reaches to zero and they do flee of each
other. So, repulsive force is other face of attractive force.

Our universe was born by a black hole’s explosion. All bodies in our
universe are interaction with bodies in other universes.

The center of explosion is like the center of great bodies. There external force is near
zero in the center of explosion. So, there interaction between particles and atoms do
without the effect of a considerable external force. Also the center of explosion is an
especially point in observable universe. All bodies are interaction to center of explosion
and receive any particles to them from it and go from bodies to center of explosion. In
center of explosion interaction between particles produce new particles.

In CPH theory the geometry of universe is not that Newton said or Einstein propounded.

Universe is infinite in all directions, but it is part by part. Every part is a sub
universe that has itself geometry.

Is universe expanding?

Black hole absorbs particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity force does
strongly so much. Then the straight speed or other movement of CPH changes to spin or
other motions. When all motions of CPH changed to spin, body takes critical conditions.

If this black hole absorbs other objects or to reaction with other body, CPHs do not obey
of external force and black hole explodes. At first time the great bodies born. Then
objects with high speed near speed of light or faster than light start their travel. Then
atoms and particles do form and in the end electromagnetic wave and CPH progressing all
side of universe.

All objects feeling that itself is the center of this explosion. And every observer seems
that all bodies are speeding away from each other. Suppose another explosion happens in
other space of universe. Many bodies start their travel toward the bodies of last
explosion. Then observers witness colliding bodies or galaxies. Our universe was born by a
black hole’s explosion. We thought this explosion did happen in all of universe. There
is probability that every black hole growth and explodes, and then a new universe does
born.

Expanding Universe & Gravity Storm

A Look at Expanding Universe;

Bodies started their motion and did go far from center of explosion, after of Big Bang had
happened. Bodies were going far each other and they were impressionable other bodies. So,
when a body has been going far of other bodies, its kinetic energy has been changing to
CPH and has been abandon it. CPH has been moving all sides of universe,

especially toward the center of explosion. When CPHs reach to
center of explosion from many bodies, they have different directions. It is like a pool
that many tubes with different directions are feeding water to a pool. CPH create storm
gravity. We can not see gravity force, so when we are looking at a point of space, there
is no any visible things. But storm gravity produces any particle or photon or mass and
feed to universe. And we saw many kinds beam of particle receive to earth. But we never
can see the source of these particles.

The Conservation Law of Mass-Energy

Classical mechanic had two conservation laws. One was the conservation law of mass, and
other was the conservation law of energy. We know these laws are incorrect because mass
and energy are convertible to each other.

Relativity propounded the conservation law of mass-energy. Evidence show it is correct.
Mass and energy are two changeable quantities. We know the conservation law of mass-energy
is correct in a closed system. Mass changes to energy and energy changes to mass.

But it is a questionable deduction. Are there mass and energy in universe, only?

Suppose universe is a closed system. This supposition is acceptable.

Did form universe of mass and energy only?

There is not other thing in universe?

All evidence shows that objects take energy in fields.

When an electron accelerates in an electrical field, it takes energy.

In this case mass does not changes to energy. Field produces energy.

When an object accelerates by force, it takes energy.

Also in this case mass does not changes to energy. Field produces energy.

So the conservation law of mass-energy is not correct in universe.

We can find space between stars that there is force only and there is empty of mass and
energy. We never can find any closed system that there were mass and energy, only.

But suppose there is a really closed system and it is isolate of others. No external force
applied on this closed system. Suppose the summation of all energies is equal x, and
summation of mass is equal y kg. There happens a nuclear explosion and z kg mass changes
to energy. What happens for nuclear forces? They do go to nothing?

All evidence show there is a relationship between force and energy.

Force and energy is convertible.

Field is weakly energy.

Accelerating Universe

Deep as Einstein's general theory of relativity may be, it remains silent on a profound
question: Is empty space really empty? Inflation models predict that it was not so in the
past, and it may not be so today either. Einstein introduced a "cosmological
constant" into his equations, to represent the possibility that even empty space has
energy and couples to gravity. The unknown magnitude of the cosmological constant is set
by parts of physics beyond Einstein's understanding---and, at present, our own.

The new discovery that the expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating suggests
the presence of something dubbed "dark energy" that drives space apart. It seems
likely that we have roughly measured the value of a cosmological constant or something
like it.

This new discovery already widely accepted because it explains many observations. The
first indication was that the rate of expansion of the Universe has been increasing,
revealed by Type Ia supernovae. Supporting evidence comes from studies of global geometry,
structure formation, cosmic age, and galaxy clustering. They leave little doubt that in
some sense Einstein's "cosmological constant" is a reality. The energy of the
Universe is dominated by empty space whose gravitational effect is to pull the Universe
apart.

The conservation law the amount of speed is able explain the accelerating expansion of the
Universe. The conservation law the amount of speed is result able of Theory of CPH.

The Conservation Law of the Amount of Speed

Suppose atom1 formed with n1 CPH, atom2 formed with n_{2} CPH and so on. Suppose
all of CPH that a system did form with of them is equal n CPH.. By according;

When a system explodes, then the angular momentum of CPH changes to linear
momentum.

Any CPH has a linear motion and other movement with objects or other particles.

Any explosion does change other motion of CPH to linear motion. When a star explodes the
linear motion of universe does increase. Sun does emit 4x10^{12} kg per second.
When sun’s light or particles reach to earth, their linear momentums do transfer to
earth. So earth takes acceleration. We know any star does burst and they do emit a lot of
CPH to space. So the linear momentum of bodies increases and they accelerate. So universe
has acceleration.

If explosion of bodies was being equal of production of other bodies, universe has not any acceleration.

Fundamental forces

Every field does form by flowing of forces that come to pass between sources. The force
and its source are same. Mass and gravity force are same, mass is convertible to gravity
force, and vise versa and so on. Also, force and energy is convertible. In this letter I
am trying to explain fundamental forces.

Gravity force

See part falling in this article.

Nuclear Strong Force Particle

The nuclear strong field is same as gravity field. When a proton is alone, like the
hydrogen nuclear, there is not any flow between it and other protons.

Proton has positive charge. Also it has spin. Suppose two protons are moving toward each
other. There are two resistances for contraction them. One is electric charge and another
is spin. Any contact between these protons, they repel each other. But when they have high
energy, energy produces an attractive force between them. Then distance between protons
goes to near zero. Proton keeps its spin and electric charge. And nuclear has spin. In a
heavy nuclear there are many flow of strong force current between each other.

Suppose there are a few protons and neutron in a nuclear that call A, B, C, D…etc. Then
a current of strong force particles is between A and B, also a current is between A and
C.etc. When a strong force particle leaves A and reaches to B, another leaves B toward the
A and pushing it toward B and so on.

Nucleus has spin, also protons and neutrons have spin in nucleus. So, when a strong force
particle leaves a proton one side of nucleus toward the other side, it passes a very
twisted path. These currents cover the nucleus and a strong field does form. The radius of
field depends to path of current nuclear strong force.

By consider the above seems that the nuclear strong force particle does find by energy.
Also, gravity force produces energy; so nuclear strong force particle does form by
gravity.

Electricity force

There are two electricity charges. Negative charge shows with N and positive charge that
shows with P. Also there two electric force, one is attractive that shows with A, and
repulsive force that shows with R.

Suppose an electric force particle is moving. It reaches to another electric force
particle. They combine which other and produce two new electric force particles.
Productions are attractive or repulsive as following;

N+P=2A

N+N=2R

P+P=2R

Explain;

Negative charge and negative charge;

Suppose N leaved an electron1 and is moving that reaches to other N that is coming of
electron2. They combine and do convert to two R (repulsive force). They repulsive each
other and do go far. One of them moves toward electron1 and shutting it far of electron2.
Electron1 accelerates and escape of electron2. When electron1 accelerates R convert to N
and leaves it. Electron2 has same interaction.

Positive charge and positive charge;

It is same as Negative charge and negative charge.

Positive charge and negative charge;

N leaved an electron and is moving that reaches to P that is coming of a proton. They
combine and do convert to two A. They leave each other and do move toward the electron and
proton. When one of them reaches to electron pushing it toward the proton and another N
leaves electron. The proton's interaction is same as. When A reaches to proton, pushing it
toward the electron. Then it converts to P and leaves proton.

Result1;

In nucleus protons emit positive force particles. But when they reach to each other, they
convert to repulsive force particles. So, positive force particle is electric force
particle in during that leaves proton until reaches to another electric positive force
particle.

So, the affect of electric charge in nucleus is different of other cases.

Result2;

When two protons move toward each other with high energy, there is not any nuclear strong
force. When they do combine with each other, energy does change to nuclear strong force.
So, by consider CPH theory, all forces form of CPH.

Summary

Theory of CPH based on three following items;

1- The external force does not change the amount of speed.

The light's speed is constant because the amount speed of elements that do form light is constant.

2- By according force produces energy it is result able that energy
converts to force.

Particles force work on each other and produce energy.

3- Many of phenomenons are a function of limit of speed in universe.

No objects reache to speed of light.

When the speed of energy reaches to zero, energy converts to mass.

The contraction of mass in space has a limit. This limit is a function of strongly of gravity force. When all motions of CPH transferred to Spin, CPH does not obey of external forces. Then attractive force changes to repulsive force and body does explode.

**CPH has Spin only ? matter explodes
Or attractive force changes to repulsive force**

This is Theory of CPH that I propound. I like to any fresh opinion from
anyone.

Very thanks for bearing me.

With Best Regards

Hossein Javadi

Emails; javadi_hossein@hotmail.com

javadi_hossein@findology.com

amir_javadi4@yahoo.com

Group;

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cph_theory/