(Information College of Shandong Normal University 250014 Jinan, P.R. China)
Universal Resistance: Every body loses its kinetic energy and resumes to its state of relative rest because resistance is natural and universal force that always is exerted on the body unless the body has been in relative rest state. A body contacts directly with other objects, the resistance exists mainly in form of the frictional force. As a body does not contact directly with other objects, the resistance exists mainly in form of indirect resistance force. The moving object affects other objects by a force field (this is called U-field: its field intensity is in direct proportion to its momentum and is in inverse proportion to the square of distance, and its direction is the same as motion direction), all objects affected by U-field react in return on the moving body, the sum of the all reaction forces is called indirection resistance force. U-field of spin object: U=K£¨J/R2£©COS¦Á£¬£¨J¡ªangular momentum, ¦Á-the angle between vector radius and the equator plane, R-the distance from the point to center£©,direction of U-field at each point is the same as that of spin ,and the intensity of U-field is the strongest in the equator place, and is zero at two polar points.
Effects of Universal Resistance: Universal resistance theory asserts that every body is acted on by resistance to lose its kinetic energy and to resumes to the state of relative rest unless it has been in the state. The natural state of motion of any object is relative rest, if a body is not the rest state, it always returns to the rest. This assertion would be in accordance with natural phenomena.
Logical reasoning 1: When every body on the earth moves relatively, resistance makes it to lose its kinetic energy and makes it to return relative rest. The experiments of Galileo¡¯s inertia do not deny this.
Experiment: This assertion appears to be contradicted with one¡¯s everyday experiences. Suppose we exert a force with the hand to move a book along a level table plane. After we are no longer exerting a force on the book, because the frictional force is exerted on the sliding book, the book does not continue to move indefinitely, but slows down and eventually comes to rest. The ball in vibration returns to relative rest with the Earth. And so on.
Logical reasoning 2: As a planet rotates relatively, resistance is exerted on it, and makes it to lose its kinetic energy and so makes it to slows down at long time.
Observation phenomena: Archaeologists find that the rotation of Earth slows down at long time, before six hundred million years, it has 420 days in one year, now it only has 365days.
Logical reasoning 3: If the revolution angular velocity of moons is larger than angular velocity of the rotation of center celestial body, then the moons are affected by universal resistance, they could lose their energy and its orbital radius becomes smaller, its sidereal revolution period becomes shorter.
Astronomical observation phenomena: Phobos is one moon around Mars, it revolves very rapidly, and it completes an obit of Mars in only 7 hours 40 minutes, less than a martian day. Because Phobos orbits more rapidly than Mars rotates, an observer on the surface of Mars would see Phobos moving conspicuously backwards compared to Deimos, the other planets, and stars. Because its revolution angular velocity is lager than the angular velocity of the spin of Mars, universal resistance makes its sidereal revolution period to reduce slowly at one millisecond every cycle. As Phobos is slowly spiraling downward, it should hit Mars in only 30 million years!
Logical reasoning 4: Star rotates, there is universal resistance that is always exerted on it. The star loses their energy of rotation and slows down. If a Star revolves, resistance makes it to lose its kinetic energy of revolution, and so sidereal period become shorter.
Astronomical observation phenomena: Rotation periods of neutron star or pulsating star are remaining very constant, but pulsar is slowing down very slightly. The revolution period of twin neutrons becomes slowly shorter.
Logical reasoning 5: The galaxy that is affected by universal resistance loses its motion energy, and its rotation period becomes longer.
Astronomical observation phenomena: In the galaxy that rotates more quickly, there are more young stars and fewer old stars. In the galaxy that rotates slowly, there are fewer young stars and more old stars.
Logical reasoning 6: Because universal resistance are affected on retrograde moons, the moons lose their energy, and its orbital radius become smaller; then the sidereal revolution period of the moons reduce smaller. We estimate that the sidereal revolution period of Triton that orbits Neptune in retrograde direction becomes smaller at one millisecond per cycle.
Astronomical observation phenomena: so far we don¡¯t find the
Logical reasoning 7: The rotation motion of center celestial body enables the angle of the equator plane of the center body and the orbit plane of revolution body to become smaller. Because the U-field of the rotation of the center celestial body is: U=K(J/R2)COS¦Á,the U-field force is affected on revolution body in direction of the spin of celestial body at long time, so the direction of revolution motion of the body must be changed to the same as the direction of spin of center body. The orbital plane of revolution body would be changed to the equator plane of spinning center body at long time.
Astronomical observation phenomena: The solar system exhibits many regularities, and theories of its formation must account for them. The orbits of the planets are almost, but not quite circular, and all lie in essentially the same plane that is almost in the equatorial plane of the rotation of the sun. All the planets revolve around the Sun in the same direction, which is the same direction in which the Sun rotates. Moreover, almost all the planets and planetary families of satellites that revolve around them in a manner similar to the way that the planets revolve around the Sun. And the orbits of the planets, with the exception of Pluto, have only small inclination to the ecliptic plane. (see table 1)
Table 1 the same direction planets motion, the same plane of its orbital plane .
Logical reasoning 8: The center celestial body must have large angular momentum of the rotation motion, the revolution body around it can move at long time in the same direction as the spin of center celestial body.
Astronomical observation phenomena: In the solar system, the Sun rotates quickly, the planets revolve around the sun in the same direction of the spin of the sun¡¯s spin (see table 1) at long time. The same is true of the moons. Mercury and Venus spin slowly, they have no moons. The planet that spins quickly has more moons.(See table 1) . Some small planets that spin quickly have moons. The number of the moons around a planet is related to the state of the planet¡¯s rotation: generally speaking, a planet with larger rotational angular momentum carries more moons, and a planet with a smaller rotational angular momentum carries fewer. See table 1
Logical reasoning 9: The moving object near the huge celestial body is affected by the reaction of huge celestial body. It loses its energy and slows down. It is nearer to huge celestial body, it loses kinetic energy more quickly.
Astronomical observation phenomena: After we take planets matter density into account to their sidereal rotation periods , mean solar day of planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn these six planets) are that the planet is nearer to the sun, its mean solar day is longer, that mean the planet rotates relatively more slowly with the Sun, the planet is far to the sun, its mean solar day is shorter, that mean it rotates relatively with the Sun more quickly.(See table 2).
Six planets relativity rotation periods (that is Day time) Table 2 *----computed data
Logical reasoning 10:Since light has wave properties, and also has the properties of parties. When light moves in the sky, universal resistance causes proton to lose kinetic energy, and then its wavelength become longer. This is called redshift. Galaxy is the more distant, the larger redshift is. If light passes near huge body, the effects of resistance is larger, and then Proton loses more its energy, and so the redshift is larger. We estimate that when lights pass near huge celestial, lights also produce redshift. This redshift is called resistance redshift.
Astronomical observation phenomena I: The light from the
remote galaxy becomes red. The galaxy is the more distant, the larger redshift is.
Cosmological redshift phenomena are accordance with resistance redshift of universal
The most obvious explanation of a ¡°cosmological redshift¡± is the Doppler effect caused by the big bang theory.
Astronomical observation phenomena II: The light from five quasars around the Seyfert galaxy NCG3516 has a very good correlation between their redshift and their angular distance from NGC3516. The red-shift of these five quasars are 0.33,0.69,0.93, 1.40,and 2.10, the five quasars distance(¦È,arcmin) from galaxy NGC3516 are 4.34, 7.34, 10.99, 10.37,11.23 . This is accordance with resistance reasoning that when light move near huge celestial, light also produces redshift.
Logical reasoning 11:Light and gravitation have wave properties and also the properties of parties. When it moves in the sky, it is affected by universal resistance and loses its energy. When proton loses its energy, it doesn¡¯t move to limitless remote place. Limitless remote light and gravitation can move to the earth, the sum to plus them is infinity light intensity and infinity gravitation intensity, this is called Orlbers¡¯s paradox. In fact it doesn¡¯t exist. We think that Universe is same in any one direction, and is uniform in any one place. Because there is universal resistance, universe can be limitless and Orlbers¡¯s paradox does not exist.
Astronomical observation phenomena: So far Orlbers¡¯s paradox phenomena don¡¯t be observed.
We can explain many phenomena by universal resistance, but it is true or false, it will be confirmed by more observation. We have design experiment to confirm U-field, but we do not do it.
1 Chen Shouyuan. Research of Revolution of Solar System Main
Charactistics. Shandong industry university, 1997,27-1:87-90
2Jay M.Pasachoff.Astronomy:From the Earth to the Universe.Saunders College.Appendix 3,Appendix 4.
3 Yaoquan Chu and Jingyao Hu .QUASARS AROUND THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC3516, The Astrophysical Journal ,1998 £¬500:596¡ª598